The Peshetta-Appendixes #3
This will be the last of the posts on the appendixes, but it will be lengthy. I am going to post my view that I held for years, even teaching it with individuals during one on one Bible studies. Then I will post the thoughts presented by Roth in his appendixes relevant to the old covenant and the new covenant. Finally, I will finish up two outside views on the topic.
Jesus says we will be judged by the words he has spoken, which were given to him by the Father. (John 12:47-50) The status of the old covenant is specifically addressed in the following verses:
Ephesians 2:15-“by setting aside in his flesh the law with its commands and regulations. His purpose was to create in himself one new humanity out of the two, thus making peace,”
Colossians 2:14-“having canceled the charge of our legal indebtedness, which stood against us and condemned us; he has taken it away, nailing it to the cross.”
Hebrews 7:12-“For when the priesthood is changed, the law must be changed also.”
Romans 3:20-“Therefore no one will be declared righteous in God’s sight by the works of the law; rather, through the law we become conscious of our sin.”
Galatians 3:19-“Why, then, was the law given at all? It was added because of transgressions until the Seed to whom the promise referred had come. The law was given through angels and entrusted to a mediator.”
I Corinthians 10:11-“These things happened to them as examples and were written down as warnings for us, on whom the culmination of the ages has come.”
John 16:13-14-“But when he, the Spirit of truth, comes, he will guide you into all the truth.He will not speak on his own; he will speak only what he hears, and he will tell you what is yet to come. He will glorify me because it is from me that he will receive what he will make known to you.”
After reading these verses, these questions were asked and discussed. Whose words will judge us? What did God abolish? What was the purpose of the Law given by Moses? Did Jesus live under the old law or the new? When did the old law end? What covenant are we under today? Why do we study the Old Testament? Where do we go to find the authority that applies to us today?
The Book of the TorahThe Book of the Torah-Roth teaches that Moses wrote the Torah by God’s command. It is not complicated, nor difficult for the average person to understand. It is provided for everyone. It represents the character of YHWH. The Jewish people were given the task of preserving it. According to Roth, it instructs us how to have a Covenant relationship with YHWH. It might be viewed as a list of do’s and don’ts, but really is a love letter from YHWH.
Moses wrote most of it, but was completed later by Joshua. It was used to restore the people of Israel. The Feast of the Tabernacles is a time for everyone to learn Torah. After Jesus arose he continued to teach from Torah. (Luke 24:25-27). Peter declared from Torah. Gentiles learned from Torah. Roth claims Paul wrote in Hebrews 10:28-29 an equated capital punishment from the Law of Moshe with violations against the blood of the covenant. He contends this shows that Torah is a Living Covenant. (I find this a real stretch. The same punishment makes the Torah and the new covenant equivalent. I do not accept this.)
Renewed CovenantRenewed Covenant-Roth ties what he calls the new covenant with the prophet Jeremiah. (Jeremiah 31:31-34). The word for renewed is chadash. This word does mean renewed in other Old Testament scriptures. It is interesting that the LXX translates this into Greek and uses the word, new, not renewed. Also, covenant terms in the ancient world were never modified. Once the walking through the blood took place, only a new covenant would be possible. (See “The Covenant” by James L. Garlow.)
Roth next compares the covenants regarding faith, belief, love, friendship, mercy, grace, compassion, Torah, promise, blessing, curse sacrifice, blood, covenant, offerings, righteousness, truth, repent, sin, forgiveness, judgment, vengeance, and hope.
He then makes a statement that I am just going to present as he wrote it and leave it to you. “YHWH did not torture and kill His own son to establish the Renewed Covenant; it was man’s religious ‘justice system’ that put the perfection of Y’shua Mashiyach on the torture stake. If sin is condemned by means of the Commandment, how much more is it condemned by being responsible for putting to death YHWH’s own likeness? Man’s sin put Masiyach on the torture stake; therefore, the Renewed Covenant upholds the Word of YHWH (Torah) which defines sin and love.”
TorahTorah-The Torah, commonly known as the Five Books of Moses from Genesis to Deuteronomy, is the Word of YHWH as Covenant, His “instruction in righteousness.” Torah contains the Terms and Conditions of YHWH’s Covenant between Himself and mankind. This is missing one key element. When you seen the word, Word, it does not mean language. It means the Logos of God. When you see it written it is talking about the Christ.
Torah In The Renewed CovenantTorah In The Renewed Covenant-Roth takes each of the 10 commandments and builds 10 tables of renewal of each commandment in the renewed (actually new) covenant.
Now, we see what I taught in years past. We also see the comments by Roth. Where does this leave us?
A key verse to understanding the law in light of this New Covenant is Matthew 5:17-20. “Do not think that I have come to abolish the Law or the Prophets; I have not come to abolish them but to fulfill them. For truly I tell you, until heaven and earth disappear, not the smallest letter, not the least stroke of a pen, will by any means disappear from the Law until everything is accomplished. Therefore anyone who sets aside one of the least of these commands and teaches others accordingly will be called least in the kingdom of heaven, but whoever practices and teaches these commands will be called great in the kingdom of heaven. For I tell you that unless your righteousness surpasses that of the Pharisees and the teachers of the law, you will certainly not enter the kingdom of heaven.”
Previously, I misunderstood Colossians 2:14 because of an older translation. I thought this verse said the law was nailed to the cross. It does not. It says our indebtedness is nailed to the cross. Even so, we have the other verses I posted earlier in this post.
As a part of researching this post, I went to got questions.org to see what they said about this subject. They posted a recommendation of a book by Jason C. Meyer entitled “The End Of The Law: Mosaic Covenant In Pauline Theology”. I downloaded this book and here is the gist of what was said:
He contends that the Mosaic covenant is now “old” because it belongs to the old age, whereas the new covenant is “new” because it belongs to the new eschatological (concerned with death, judgment, and the final destiny the soul and of humankind) age. Both covenants call for a heart change but the old and new differ in that the old was ineffectual. The new covenant is an effectual covenant, belonging to the new age, and does create the heart change for which it calls.
The newness of the new covenant is the difference owning to the fact that God deals with the same sinful people in a remarkably different way; by creating the faithfulness for which He calls through the new covenant, by the atoning death and the transformative power of the Holy Spirit.
The Mosaic covenant was meant to lead us to Christ as the end and goal of the Mosaic law (Romans 10:4)
I continued my search by following a recommendation to read Bobby Valentine’s (considered to be a scholar on this and many other subjects) posts on the old law. They are in contrast to what is presented by Meyer. I am going to post the links he gave me in response to my asking him for help.
#1) Why We need the OT: https://stonedcampbelldisciple.com/2018/05/19/why-we-need-the-old-testament-ten-ways-the-hebrew-bible-is-necessary-for-christianity-reflections-on-2-timothy-3-16-17/
#2) Common Prejudicial Stereotypes regarding the OT: https://stonedcampbelldisciple.com/2017/02/11/top-ten-shocking-facts-about-the-law-of-moses-your-preacher-never-told-you/
#3) What is the “Old Covenant?” https://stonedcampbelldisciple.com/2016/08/01/what-is-the-old-covenant-is-not-the-old-testament-thinking-about-the-structure-of-the-bible/
#4) Meaning of “New” https://stonedcampbelldisciple.com/2016/02/27/jeremiah-31-31-34-explorations-on-new-and-renewed-in-the-bible/
#5) What Was nailed to the Cross ? https://stonedcampbelldisciple.com/2008/07/16/what-was-nailed-the-cross/
#6) End of the Law? https://stonedcampbelldisciple.com/2021/05/31/christ-is-the-end-of-the-law-or-christ-is-the-goal-culmination-of-the-law-romans-10/
#7) Heartbeat of the Bible: Getting the OT Right https://wineskins.org/2014/11/30/exodus-34-pulse-bible/
#8) Jn 1.17: Grace and Truth https://wineskins.org/2021/05/06/grace-and-truth-moses-heard-it-we-saw-it/
#9) Old Testament Context of the NT: https://wineskins.org/2019/10/23/the-biblical-context-of-the-new-testament/
#10) Sweeter than Honey: https://wineskins.org/2019/04/10/sweeter-than-honey-torah-gods-love-story/
#11) Jesus and Israel: https://stonedcampbelldisciple.com/2021/08/28/temptation-in-the-wilderness-jesus-reliving-the-story-of-israel-mt-4-1-11/
#12) Kaiser’s JETS article
#13) Wolf on Jer 31:
#14) Acts 15.10 Heavy Yoke https://stonedcampbelldisciple.com/2019/08/19/peter-and-the-heavy-yoke-acts-15-10-law-of-moses-or-pharisaic-tradition/
#15) Mt 5.17 https://stonedcampbelldisciple.com/2008/07/22/of-dating-engagements-and-fulfilling-the-law-matthew-5-17
#16) God’s Law and the heart https://stonedcampbelldisciple.com/2016/10/07/gods-law-the-heart-a-case-of-misrepresenting-the-old-testament/
I am going to post what I have at this point. If any of you would like, I would appreciate your thoughts on this topic. I know there is a lot here, but it is an important topic. I am still not convinced that what I posted at the beginning of this topic is incorrect except for the application of Colossians 2:14. I will give you more thoughts later, but feel free to post your thoughts.